Numbers, please: The history of metal number 18 – uranium

A pharmacist presented a newly discovered metal to the public 230 years ago: He called it uranium – as uranium it would later shape world history.

Exactly 230 years ago to the day, the pharmacist and chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth presented a new metal in front of the Royal Prussian Academy of Science: Klaproth, who discovered titanium and zirconium oxide, had ground pitchblende from the Georgswagsfort mine near Johanngeorgenstadt and mixed it with various salt solutions processed. Under the title “Advertisement of a newly discovered semi-metal” it says: “I hope to have increased the number of the previously known 17 metals by a new one, which I attribute to the name uranite.” Klaproth chose the name after the planet Uranus, which was discovered by Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel eight years earlier. A year later, Klaproth’s uranite was renamed uranium. How many calories in uranium?

For the miners who mined silver in the Saxon Ore Mountains, pitchblende was the sign of the drying up of a silver vein. They were just unlucky when they came across this substance and cleared the uranium ore on the heap, where it oxidized. It was a stroke of luck for Klaproth to examine this overburden. “The yellow earth that accompanies this fossil, as well as the self-breaking green mica, or chalcolite, also belong to this new metallic substance,” he recognized. The powder produced by Klaproth, an oxide of uranium, was soon used in the production of uranium glass in Bohemia. Pure uranium could only be produced 50 years after it was discovered by Klaproth.

Uranium’s real career began on March 1, 1896, when the French physicist Henri Becquerel noticed that a photographic plate had been exposed even though it was stored in a dark room. Becquerel, who was experimenting with uranium salts, had stored his preparations made from uranium potassium sulfate in this room and was thus able to track down a radiation that he called uranium rays. After Wilhelm Conradt Röntgen and the X-rays , Becquerel is the second discoverer of invisible radiation. For his explanation of radioactivity – the name itself comes from Marie Curie – he and the Curie couple were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.

While Becquerel worked with uranium salts, the Curie couple experimented with pitchblende from the spoil from St. Joachimsthal in the Ore Mountains, today’s Jáchymov. Technically, the Curies evaluated the tailings – fine-grain residues from the processing of ores. They made the discovery that the material was much more active than other pitch blends and concluded that there must be more radioactive elements. This led to the discovery of the elements radium and polonium. In 1911 Marie Curie therefore received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Back to uranium: In 1938 Otto Hahn and Fritz Straßmann tried their hand at the fission of uranium, which the emigrated Jewish project partner Lise Meitner described more generally and theoretically as nuclear fission in Sweden . Via Meitner and the Dane Niels Bohr, the findings reached the USA, where Enrico Fermi succeeded in the first chain reaction with uranium and uranium oxide in 1942 with the Chicago Pile . The age of nuclear energy could begin – as an arms race in the Cold War: The USA had completed its first atomic bomb in 1945, the Russian bomb was ready for use in 1949, and the first nuclear power plant went online in 1956.

Nowadays, when mining uranium, 1 ton of uranium is extracted from 10,000 tons of uranium ore as uranium oxide. This yellowcake contains 75 percent uranium and is exported in this form from the leading uranium mining countries Kazakhstan, Canada and Australia for energy production. What remains are the tailing basins that contaminate the mining area. They are known as the sacrificial zone in the USA, where there is hardly any uranium mined .

The yellow cake is converted into uranium hexafluoride and then goes to the enrichment plant, in which the proportion of fissile uranium-235 is increased to 3 to 5 percent for the production of fuel elements for nuclear power plants. Enrichment to 90 percent is necessary for military use as a nuclear warhead. The great differences between the two forms of use currently form the nucleus for the debates about the nuclear agreement with Iran, which is intended to limit Iran’s nuclear program to the peaceful use of nuclear energy.


Avast Free Antivirus Review

Avast advantage: The automatic gamer mode knows when you start playing and interrupts some functions to free up resources.

Disadvantage of Avast: This program has several special features that make it difficult to use.

For online gamers accessing websites and programs that tend to harbor malware, Avast FREE Antivirus is a good choice as it effectively blocks malware and automatically suspends some functionality while you play.

Avast has a paid antivirus, but we wanted to look at Avast FREE Antivirus because we got a lot of questions about it. Our readers wonder: how good is avast as a free antivirus and whether it works flawlessly. And Avast is one of the most popular free programs . This software does a good job of protecting against malware, but its biggest advantage for the die-hard gamer is because of its intuitive and automatic gaming mode . Avast cleanup premium 2019 license key 2043

Avast gamming mode:

The gamming mode of this virus protection program detects when you are playing online and activates itself automatically. It also instinctively adds your gaming pages to its safe list, so the game mode will turn on faster the next time you log in. Gaming mode pauses some functions while you are playing, so you have all the system resources you need to play without delay.

Avast also stops pop-ups that can cause distraction or additional delay while playing online. This antivirus is still running lightly in the background to detect threats that are trying to sneak in.

Install Avast:

The installation of Avast FREE Antivirus is simple, and the dashboard is designed so that you can quickly find the features, tools and settings you need. But there are some special features in this program.

First, unlike most of the other antivirus we’ve tested, Avast didn’t add the browser extensions we needed. To do this, we had to do a little more detective work and look for the extensions.

Once installed , Avast will let us know when it detected a threat by displaying pop-up messages outside of the browser. Even if the threat was a malicious website, Avast did not display a warning message in the browser like other programs, but instead used the pop-up method. This required us to be a little more vigilant about these warnings. And when we closed the embassy it would come back up just to make sure we see it. This caused a lot of frustration and lost time when we were about to move on to our next task but had to wait for the pop-up message to cancel.

Test Results – Live Malware Detection Test:

In our live malware detection tests, this software correctly identified 97 percent of the threats. This differs significantly from other independent testing laboratories. Some other labs gave Avast higher scores, while others gave significantly lower scores for malware protection.

We found that Avast did not stop threats in the browser nor prevent malicious files from downloading. Most other programs, including Avira Free Security Suite, do just that. Instead, Avast waited and intercepted any threat as soon as it was fully downloaded. This made us nervous while testing as we knew what kind of damage these threats can cause to our computers.

But Avast didn’t let any of them through. In fact, the samples that were not collected were a few websites marked as dangerous and listed in malware databases because they had a phishing scheme.

Because it’s a simple, free antivirus, Avast doesn’t have many additional security tools. Phishing and spam filters, personal firewalls, password managers and parental controls are included in the premium programs offered by Avast. But Avast FREE Antivirus has a vulnerability scanner that looks for vulnerabilities in your system that ransomware and hackers like to get past.


GTA 5: Remastered version for the PS5 confirmed – release will take place in 2021

The first title announced for PS5 tonight is an old acquaintance. We are talking about the long-running open world “GTA 5”.

This Thursday evening Sony Interactive Entertainment will finally give us a first look at the games PS5 owners can look forward to.

It all started with an old friend who will in future span three generations of consoles. We are talking about the open world hit “GTA 5”, which was originally released in 2013 for the PlayStation 3 and the Xbox 360. After an implementation for the PS4 followed a few years ago, Rockstar Games announced “GTA 5” today for the PS5 as well.

Technically completely revised

So far, however, the studio has not been able to elicit too many details. Instead, there was only talk of the fact that “GTA 5” or “Grand Theft Auto 5” will find its way to the PS5 in a completely revised version. Even if a corresponding confirmation is still pending, we can probably be pleased with support for 4K resolution and a display in 60 frames per second.

On the subject : xbox one mod menu gta 5 online download

In addition, there is talk of an “expanded version”, which suggests the train of thought that new content is on board. According to official information, “GTA 5” will set course for the PlayStation 5 in the coming year. Since there was no talk of exclusivity, an announcement for the Xbox Series X should certainly only be a matter of time.

With more than 130 million games sold, “GTA 5” is one of the most successful titles of our time. Now we know that Rockstar Games would like to continue this success story on the next generation of consoles.


PUBG Mobile for Android and iOS in the test

Especially when you think that the market can no longer be saved, two current top titles make it into the mobile app stores. As most of you have probably noticed, games in the Battle Royale subgenre are currently more popular than ever. In the console and PC segment, Playerunknown’s Battlegrounds, PUBG for short, and Fortnite from Epic Games are clearly the top dogs. And as luck would have it, both appear for smartphones and tablets around the same time. Marcel has already looked at the (almost) 1: 1 port of the somewhat childish Fortnite in his extensive review . In contrast to Fortnite (only iOS so far), the more realistic competitor is now already on Android and iOS available. Resourceful fans could actually get the Chinese version weeks ago and play. But now a localized version with European servers has made it to us. What you can really expect from the “little” brother of the PC version, and whether the concept works on the go, you will find out in the following review.

Shooter on the console ok, but on the smartphone ?!

This works out! Even if the initial skepticism was quite, quite high, and even after a few hours of play it could not be completely eradicated, PUBG is also a lot of fun on the smartphone. It should be clear that a rather complex “shooting game” is being controlled via a single pane of glass – compromises cannot be avoided. But what Bluehole and its partners ultimately got out of the control is definitely impressive. Anyone who has already taken Marcel’s test of Fortnite Battle Royale to heart should find some parallels here. With a virtual stick on the left half of the screen you move your character, on the right side you look around. Pubg kr version esp hack.

All other interactions such as jumping, climbing, reloading and all others share the remaining space in the form of additional soft buttons. On the whole, everything can be reached easily and reasonably intuitively from the start, but in the heat of the moment it can come to annoying incorrect entries. In the very first round you may still be a bit “stiff”, but the service goes into meat after just a few matches  Blood over. The amazing thing: With a certain amount of practice, the processes even feel so smooth that you could almost think you are playing on the console. There are also some buttons on the upper half of the screen. At the top right you can open a large map with a fingertip on the minimap, which can be enlarged and allows for markers. A few smaller buttons for voice chat and the autorun function nestle directly on the minimap. Incidentally, the latter is extremely important and absurdly practical, as it allows you to organize your inventory while you are moving. If you stop, you often get the receipt in the form of an elegant headshot (yes, that works on smartphones too!).

You can also look around by tapping on a mini-button and then swiping, without affecting the direction of the figure. The only problem is that the buttons that have just been described next to the card are so small that you feel like you have to sharpen your fingers. Fortunately, the autorun can also be “locked in” by pulling up the left virtual stick. Despite the smaller frictional resistance, it is amazing how the makers have transferred the rather complex controls of the original to a small screen, without obstructing too much viewing area.

Can be played smoothly (with the right phone)

In contrast to Fortnite, PUBG was allowed to face all kinds of dissatisfaction from the community. The reason for this: the horrific performance on PC and console in the beginning. In the meantime, thanks to optimizations and adapted drivers, the situation has calmed down a bit, but one wonders how the hell Tencent managed to get the chunk of gaming to work on mobile chipsets as well. Well, somehow it seems to have worked. However, the PUBG Mobile port did not get away with it as unscathed as the competitor. Obviously this will be the case as soon as you step onto the playing field, an 8 × 8 kilometer island. A lot has been rationalized away, especially when it comes to textures and details. Entire hotspots have also been redesigned to reduce the computing effort for mobiles. This is how the popular hotspot (for suicides) “

Inside buildings you have to put up with sloping step ramps instead of real steps. But in the end it is not as serious as it sounds. The game still looks coherent and almost perfectly captures the feel of the game. In addition, depending on the power of the smartphone or tablet, the graphics can also be adjusted a little in the settings. If you look back at the release of Minecraft: Pocket Edition, it didn’t really shine in the beginning with its scope and graphics. In the meantime, however, the devices are more powerful and Minecraft on mobiles is almost as good as the PC version. We suspect a similar development for PUBG Mobile in the next few years. And of course many other titles and upcoming games.

Why doesn’t the PC version have it ?!

It should now be clear where in PUBG Mobile you have to compromise compared to consoles and the PC. However, the port also offers some advantages that one would expect in the original. Point 1: The airline on the map. Often you jump out of the plane on the PC, cover up with Loot and ask yourself: “Where did the plane fly now?”. When choosing the route, it is important to stay as far away from the flight path as possible, unless you are looking for a confrontation. On the PC, people (like the author of this review) with poor short-term memories are in the dark. In PUBG Mobile, on the other hand, a dashed line shows where you originally flew.

Another nice convenience feature is auto-booting. You don’t necessarily need this on the PC, but on the Xbox this feature would also have a lot of added value. If you run over Loot, you automatically bag everything useful. Not only is every slot filled, but weak loot such as a 1-helmet is exchanged for the clunky, but very protective 3-helmet. The system is by no means perfect, but it does relieve a lot of work and often prevents you from being shot down while annoying items are pushed back and forth. As if that weren’t enough, if you leave the battlefield and look at the menu, a few more little things are revealed that other platforms would lick their fingers for. Without going into too much detail now,

In PUBG Mobile there is about a season with the associated ranking system, missions, events, rewards, login bonuses, a ping display for servers, a global chat with recruiting and crew function – for a short breath – a tutorial, a level and reward box system , a messaging system and, and, and. Phew, if that’s nothing. It almost seems as if Tencent and Bluehole are testing certain functions on mobile players in order to be able to incorporate them into the main game later without a shitstorm. All of this in sum makes PUBG Mobile more motivating for many than the large version, where you only get rewards in the form of points at the end of the round.

In addition, PUBG Mobile can be downloaded for free from the stores for everyone. We haven’t seen boxes that can be opened with real money yet. A look at the Play Store reveals: There are not even in-app purchases! That something like that will be added in the future is almost as certain as the amen in the church.

Finally, a few words about the sound. Of course, you usually only have a mono speaker or normal headphones in use, thanks to a tiny but fine function you can even play PUBG Mobile quite successfully without sound. If shots are fired on the map, you don’t necessarily have to locate them by ear. In addition, a marker is shown on the minimap (taking silencers into account) when an opponent fires a shot within hearing range. An extremely practical feature that would offer a certain added value even on the PC version with its miserable sound engine.

Conclusion: winner-winner, chicken dinner!

Or as it is rightly called apart from poorly translated product descriptions (we really laughed at the app store description): Winner Winner Chicken Dinner! Ending up as the “Last Man Standing” in the midst of 100 players is simply the ultimate satisfaction. Tencent fills the first few games with bots for easy entry (but these disappear with increasing experience), but the learning curve is steep and the fun is great. In addition to compromises in optics, but definitely playable frame rates on modern devices, you have to be prepared for a well-implemented control in PUBG Mobile that still takes a lot of getting used to. On our test subject, an Honor 9 with a Kirin 960 chipset, we had no real problems with gaming, apart from minor stutterers.

As compensation, the mobile version gives you more motivation, no annoying real money keys and a better online experience in general. Despite the hype-like start-up phase, the European servers were always available and ran smoothly. Even on the go with LTE, the ping always settled below 100, which can be described as playable. You only look for bugs in remote corners, and the download is not too big with around 700 MB (Android, iOS almost 900 MB). If you can’t do anything with PUBG on your PC or simply can’t see a country there, PUBG Mobile is probably a more than suitable alternative. Instead, everyone else has the opportunity to indulge in the grueling Battle Royale on the go. PUBG Mobile is free for iOS and Android available, but requires a device from the upper class or upper middle class to be able to play comfortably.